Historical pathways of introduction for non-indigenous forest pathogens.

Author , ,
Date 2011.
Publication Phytopathology 101:S137.
Key Words
AbstractNon-indigenous pathogens introduced since the late 1800s have caused sixteen damaging forest epidemics that have reduced or now threaten the diversity and sustainability of U.S. forests. Evidence for the most likely pathway of introduction is provided for these invasive forest pathogens based on historical records and knowledge of pathogen biology. Eight pathogens were likely introduced on live plants: Cronartium ribicola, Cryphonectria parasitica, Discula destructiva, Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina, Lachnellula willkcomii, Melampsora larici-populina, Phytophthora lateralis, and P. ramorum. Two insect-vectored pathogens, Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, were imported on logs, and another, Raffaelea lauricola, was likely introduced on solid wood packaging. The entry pathway could not be determined for five pathogens: Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cryptodiaporthe populea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, and the Venturia saliciperda-Glomerella miyabeana complex. Identification of pathways is critical to preventing new pathogen introductions. Findings emphasize the importance of improved mitigations for pathogens on live plants as global plant trade escalates.
Full Citation Parke, J.L.; Britton, K.O.; and Frankel, S.J. 2011. Historical pathways of introduction for non-indigenous forest pathogens. Phytopathology 101:S137.